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Research Papers



Klose J, Pahl M, Bartmann K, Bendt F, Blum J, Dolde X, Förster N, Holzer AK, Hübenthal U, Keßel HE, Koch K, Masjosthusmann S, Schneider S, Stürzl LC, Woeste S, Rossi A, Covaci A, Behl M, Leist M, Tigges J, Fritsche E. Neurodevelopmental toxicity assessment of flame retardants using a human DNT in vitro testing battery. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2021 May 10.

doi: 10.1007/s10565-021-09603-2


Tigges J, Bielec K, Brockerhoff G, Hildebrandt B, Hübenthal U, Kapr J, Koch K, Teichweyde N, Wieczorek D, Rossi A, Fritsche E. Academic application of Good Cell Culture Practice for induced pluripotent stem cells. ALTEX. 2021 May 6.

doi: 10.14573/altex.2101221


Distler T, Lauria I, Detsch R, Sauter CM, Bendt F, Kapr J, Rütten S, Boccaccini AR, Fritsche E. Neuronal Differentiation from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurospheres by the Application of Oxidized Alginate-Gelatin-Laminin Hydrogels. Biomedicines. 2021 Mar 5;9(3):261.

doi: 10.3390/biomedicines9030261


Barenys M, Illa M, Hofrichter M, Loreiro C, Pla L, Klose J, Kühne BA, Gómez-Catalán J, Braun JM, Crispi F, Gratacós E, Fritsche E. Rabbit neurospheres as a novel in vitro tool for studying neurodevelopmental effects induced by intrauterine growth restriction. Stem Cells Transl Med (2021)                     
doi: 10.1002/sctm.20-0223


Strom A, Strassburger K, Schmuck M, Shevalye H, Davidson E, Zivehe F, Bönhof G, Reimer R, Belgardt BF, Fleming T, Biermann B, Burkart V, Müssig K, Szendroedi J, Yorek MA, Fritsche E, Nawroth PP, Roden M, Ziegler D, GDS Group. Interaction between magnesium and methylglyoxal in diabetic polyneuropathy and neuronal models. Mol Metab (2021)                    
doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2020.101114


Fischer I, Nickel AC, Qin N, Taban K, Pauck D, Steiger HJ, Kamp M, Muhammad S, Hänggi D, Fritsche E, Remke M, Kahlert DU.  Different Calculation Strategies Are Congruent in Determining Chemotherapy Resistance of Brain Tumors In Vitro. Cells (2020)

doi: 10.3390/cells9122689

Uhlmann C, Kuhn LM, Tigges J, Fritsche E, Kahlert UDK. Efficient Modulation of TP53 Expression in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol (2020)  doi: 10.1002/cpsc.102 

Nimtz L, Hartmann J, Tigges J, Masjosthusmann S, Schmuck M, Keßel E, Theiss S, Köhrer K, Petzsch P, Adjaye J, Wigmann C, Wieczorek D, Hildebrandt B, Bendt F, Hübenthal U, Brockerhoff G, Fritsche E. Characterization and application of electrically active neuronal networks established from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells for neurotoxicity evaluation. Stem Cell Res (2020)

doi: 10.1016/j.scr.2020.101761

Klose J, Tigges J, Masjosthusmann S, Schmuck K, Bendt F, Hübenthal U, Petzsch P, Köhrer K, Koch K, Fritsche E.  TBBPA targets converging key events of human oligodendrocyte development resulting in two novel AOPs. Altex (2020)

doi: 10.14573/altex.2007201


Hausmann C, Zoschke C, Wolff C, Darvin ME, Sochorová M, Kováčik A, Wanjiku B, Schumacher F, Tigges J, Kleuser B, Lademann J, Fritsche E, Vávrová K, Ma N, Schäfer-Korting M. Fibroblast origin shapes tissue homeostasis, epidermal differentiation, and drug uptake. Sci Rep (2019)

doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-39770-6

Ali AAH, Schwarz-Herzke B, Mir S, Sahlender B, Victor M, Görg B, Schmuck M, Dach K, Fritsche E, Kremer A, von Gall C. Deficiency of the clock gene Bmal1 affects neural progenitor cell migration. Brain Struct Funct (2019)

doi: 10.1007/s00429-018-1775-1

Kühne BA, Puig T, Ruiz-Martí­nez S, Crous-Masó J, Planas M, Feliu L, Cano A, García ML, Fritsche E, Llobet JM, Gómez-Catalán J, Barenys M Comparison of migration disturbance potency of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) synthetic analogs and EGCG PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles in rat neurospheres. Food Chem Toxicol (2019)

doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.10.055

Li L, Yin Tang L, Liang B, Wang R, Sun Q, Bik San Lau C, Chung Leung P, Fritsche E, Liebsch M, Seiler Wulczyn AEM, Spielmann H, Wang CC. Evaluation of in vitro embryotoxicity tests for Chinese herbal medicines. Reprod Toxicol (2019)

doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.06.001

Walter KM, Dach K, Hayakawa K, Giersiefer S, Heuer H, Lein PJ, Fritsche E. Ontogenetic expression of thyroid hormone signaling genes: An in vitro and in vivo species comparison. PLos One (2019)

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221230

Masjosthusmann S, Siebert C, Hübenthal U, Bendt F, Baumann J, Fritsche E. Arsenite interrupts neurodevelopmental processes of human and rat neural progenitor cells: The role of reactive oxygen species and species-specific antioxidative defense. Chemosphere (2019)

doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.06.123


Hellwig C, Barenys M, Baumann J, Gassmann K, Casanellas L, Kauer G, Fritsche E. Culture of human neurospheres in 3D scaffolds for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Toxicol In Vitro (2018)

doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2018.06.002

Masjosthusmann S, Becker D, Petzuch B, Klose J, Siebert C, Deenen R, Barenys M, Baumann J, Dach K, Tigges J, Hübenthal U, Köhrer K, Fritsche E. A transcriptome comparison of time-matched developing human, mouse and rat neural progenitor cells reveals human uniqueness. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (2018)

doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2018.05.009


Barenys M, Gassmann K, Baksmeier C, Heinz S, Reverte I, Schmuck M, Temme T, Bendt F, Zschauer TC, Rockel TD, Unfried K, Wätjen W, Sundaram SM, Heuer H, Colomina MT, Fritsche E. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibits adhesion and migration of neural progenitor cells in vitro. Arch Toxicol (2017)

doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1709-8

Schmuck MR, Temme T, Dach K, de Boer D, Barenys M, Bendt F, Mosig A, Fritsche E. Omnisphero: a high-content image analysis (HCA) approach for phenotypic developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) screenings of organoid neurosphere cultures in vitro. Arch Toxicol (2017)

doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1852-2

Dach K, Bendt F, Huebenthal U, Giersiefer S, Lein PJ, Heuer H, Fritsche E. BDE-99 impairs differentiation of human and mouse NPCs into the oligodendroglial lineage by species-specific modes of action. Sci Rep (2017)

doi: 10.1038/srep44861

Hofrichter M, Nimtz L, Tigges J, Kabiri Y, Schröter F, Royer-Pokora B, Hildebrandt B, Schmuck M, Epanchintsev A, Theiss S, Adjaye J, Egly JM, Krutmann J, Fritsche E. Comparative performance analysis of human iPSC-derived and primary neural progenitor cells (NPC) grown as neurospheres in vitro. Stem Cell Res (2017)

doi: 10.1016/j.scr.2017.10.013


Baumann J, Gassmann K, Masjosthusmann S, DeBoer D, Bendt F, Giersiefer S, Fritsche E. Comparative human and rat neurospheres reveal species differences in chemical effects on neurodevelopmental key events. Arch Toxicol (2016)

doi: 10.1007/s00204-015-1568-8


Tigges J, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Vogel CFA, Grindel A, Hübenthal U, Brenden H, Grether-Beck S, Vielhaber G, Johncock W, Krutmann J, Fritsche E. The new aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist E/Z-2-benzylindene-5,6-dimethoxy-3,3-dimethylindan-1-one protects against UVB-induced signal transduction. J Invest Dermatol (2014)

doi: 10.1038/jid.2013.362

Baumann J, Barenys M, Gassmann K, Fritsche E. Comparative human and rat neurosphere assay for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Curr Protoc Toxicol (2014)

doi: 10.1002/0471140856.tx1221s59

Schmuck M, Temme T, Heinz S, Baksmeier C, Mosig A, Colomina MT, Barenys M, Fritsche E. Automatic counting and positioning of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cells in cortical layers of rat brain slices. Neurotoxicology (2014)

doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2014.02.005

Gassmann K, Schreiber T, Dingemans MM, Krause G, Roderigo C, Giersiefer S, Schuwald J, Moors M, Unfried K, Bergman Å, Westerink RH, Rose CR, Fritsche E. BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 modulate calcium homeostasis in primary fetal human neural progenitor cells via ryanodine receptor-independent mechanisms. Arch Toxicol (2014)

doi: 10.1007/s00204-014-1217-7


Tigges J, Weighardt H, Wolff S, Götz C, Förster I, Kohne Z, Huebenthal U, Merk HF, Abel J, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Krutmann J, Fritsche E. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) function revisited: repression of CYP1 activity in human skin fibroblasts is not related. to AhRR expression J Invest Dermatol (2013)

doi: 10.1038/jid.2012.259

Hewitt NJ, Edwards RJ, Fritsche E, Goebel C, Aeby P, Scheel J, Reisinger K, Ouédraogo G, Duche D, Eilstein J, Latil A, Kenny J, Moore C, Kuehnl J, Barroso J, Fautz R, Pfuhler S. Use of human in vitro skin models for accurate and ethical risk assessment: metabolic considerations. Toxicol Sci (2013)

doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft080


van Eijl S, Zhu Z, Cupitt J, Gierula M, Götz C, Fritsche E, Edwards RJ. Elucidation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways in human skin and human skin models by proteomic profiling. Cell Mol Life Sci (PLos One) (2012)

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041721

Götz C, Pfeiffer R, Tigges J, Blatz V, Jäckh C, Freytag EM, Fabian E, Landsiedel R, Merk HF, Krutmann J, Edwards RJ, Pease C, Goebel C, Hewitt N, Fritsche E. Xenobiotic metabolism capacities of human skin in comparison with a 3D epidermis model and keratinocyte-based cell culture as in vitro alternatives for chemical testing: activating enzymes (Phase I). Exp Dermatol (2012)

doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2012.01486.x

Götz C, Pfeiffer R, Tigges J, Ruwiedel K, Hübenthal U, Merk HF, Krutmann J, Edwards RJ, Abel J, Pease C, Goebel C, Hewitt N, Fritsche E. Xenobiotic metabolism capacities of human skin in comparison with a 3D-epidermis model and keratinocyte-based cell culture as in vitro alternatives for chemical testing: phase II enzymes. Exp Dermatol (2012)

doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2012.01478.x

Röck K, Meusch M, Fuchs N, Tigges J, Zipper P, Fritsche E, Krutmann J, Homey B, Reifenberger J, Fischer JW. Estradiol protects dermal hyaluronan/versican matrix during photoaging by release of epidermal growth factor from keratinocytes. J Biol Chem (2012)

doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.353151

Götz C, Hewitt NJ, Jermann E, Tigges J, Kohne Z, Hübenthal U, Krutmann J, Merk HF, Fritsche E. Effects of the genotoxic compounds, benzo[a]pyrene and cyclophosphamide on phase 1 and 2 activities in EpiDermâ„¢ models. Xenobiotica (2012)

doi: 10.3109/00498254.2011.643255


Tegenge MA, Rockel TD, Fritsche E, Bicker G. Nitric oxide stimulates human neural progenitor cell migration via cGMP-mediated signal transduction. Cell Mol Life Sci (2011)

doi: 10.1007/s00018-010-0554-9


Schreiber T, Gassmann K, Götz C, Hübenthal U, Moors M, Krause G, Merk HF, Nguyen NH, Scanlan TS, Abel J, Rose CR, Fritsche E. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers induce developmental neurotoxicity in a human in vitro model: evidence for endocrine disruption. Environ Health Perspect (2010)

doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901435

Gassmann K, Abel J, Bothe H, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Merk HF, Quasthoff KN, Rockel TD, Schreiber T, Fritsche E. Species-specific differential AhR expression protects human neural progenitor cells against developmental neurotoxicity of PAHs. Environ Health Perspect (2010)

doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901545


Moors M, Rockel TD, Abel J, Cline JE, Gassmann K, Schreiber T, Schuwald J, Weinmann N, Fritsche E. Human neurospheres as three-dimensional cellular systems for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Environ Health Perspect (2009)

doi: 10.1289/ehp.0800207


Moors M, Cline JE, Abel J, Fritsche E. ERK-dependent and -independent pathways trigger human neural progenitor cell migration. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (2007)

doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2007.02.018

Fritsche E, Schäfer C, Calles C, Bernsmann T, Bernshausen T, Wurm M, Hübenthal U, Cline JE, Hajimiragha H, Schroeder P, Klotz LO, Rannug A, Fürst P, Hanenberg H, Abel J, Krutmann J. Lightening up the UV response by identification of the arylhydrocarbon receptor as a cytoplasmatic target for ultraviolet B radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci (2007)

doi: 10.1073/pnas.0701764104


Fritsche E, Cline JE, Nguyen NH, Scanlan TS, Abel J. Polychlorinated biphenyls disturb differentiation of normal human neural progenitor cells: clue for involvement of thyroid hormone receptors. Environ Health Perspect (2005)

doi: 10.1289/ehp.7793

Research Papers

Scientific Opinions/Reports




Neuhaus W. Consensus Statement from the European Network of 3R Centres (EU3Rnet). ALTEX (2020)
doi: 10.14573/altex.2010061 

Masjosthusmann S, Blum J, Bartmann K, Dolde X, Holzer AK, Stürzl LC, Keßel EH, Förster N, Dönmez A, Klose J, Pahl M, Waldmann T, Bendt F, Kisitu J, Suciu I, Hübenthal U, Mosig A, Leist M, Fritsche E. Establishment of an a priori protocol for the implementation and interpretation of an in‐vitro testing battery for the assessment of developmental neurotoxicity. EFSA Journal (2020)


Lupu D, Andersson P, Bornehag CG, Demeneix B, Fritsche E, Gennings C, Lichtensteiger W, Leist M, Leonards PEG, Ponsonby AL, Scholze M, Testa G, Tresguerres JAF, Westerink RHS, Zalc B, Rüegg J. The ENDpoiNTs Project: Novel Testing Strategies for Endocrine Disruptors Linked to Developmental Neurotoxicity. Int J Mol Sci (2020)

doi: 10.3390/ijms21113978


Lanzoni A, Castoldi AF, Kass GEN, Terron A, De Seze G, Bal-Price A, Bois FY, Delclos KB, Doerge DR, Fritsche E, Halldorsson T, Kolossa-Gehring M, Bennekou SH, Koning F, Lampen A, Leist M, Mantus E, Rousselle C, Siegrist M, Steinberg P, Tritscher A, Van de Water B, Vineis P, Walker N, Wallace H, Whelan M, Younes M. Advancing human health risk assessment. EFSA Journal (2019)

Krebs A, Waldmann T, Wilks MF, Van Vugt-Lussenburg BMA, Van der Burg B, Terron A, Steger-Hartmann T, Ruegg J, Rovida C, Pedersen E, Pallocca G, Luijten M, Leite SB, Kustermann S, Kamp H, Hoeng J, Hewitt P, Herzler M, Hengstler JG, Heinonen T, Hartung T, Hardy B, Gantner F, Fritsche E, Fant K, Ezendam J, Exner T, Dunkern T, Dietrich DR, Coecke S, Busquet F, Braeuning A, Bondarenko O, Bennekou SH, Beilmann M, Leist M. Template for the description of cell-based toxicological test methods to allow evaluation and regulatory use of the data. ALTEX (2019)

doi: 10.14573/altex.1909271

doi: 10.14573/altex.1909271e

Solecki R, Rauch M, Gall A, Buschmann J, Kellner R, Kucheryavenko O, Schmitt A, Delrue N, Li W, Hu J, Fujiwara M, Kuwagata M, Mantovani A, Makris SL, Paumgartten F, Schönfelder G, Schneider S, Vogl S, Kleinstreuer N, Schneider M, Schulze F, Fritsche E, Clark R, Shiota K, Chahoud I. Update of the DevTox data database for harmonized risk assessment and alternative methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 9th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity. Reprod Toxicol (2019)

doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.07.003


Masjosthusmann S, Barenys M, El-Gamal M, Geerts L, Gerosa L, Gorreja A, Kühne B, Marchetti N, Tigges J, Viviani B, Witters H, Fritsche E. Literature review and appraisal on alternative neurotoxicity testing methods. EFSA Journal (2018)


Fritsche E, Grandjean P, Crofton KM, Aschner M, Goldberg A, Heinonen T, Hessel EVS, Hogberg HT, Bennekou SH, Lein PJ, Leist M, Mundy WR, Paparella M, Piersma AH, Sachana M, Schmuck G, Solecki R, Terron A, Monnet-Tschudi F, Wilks MF, Witters H, Zurich MG, Bal-Price A. Consensus statement on the need for innovation, transition and implementation of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing for regulatory purposes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (2018)

doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2018.02.004

Bal-Price A, Hogberg HT, Crofton KM, Daneshian M, FitzGerald RE, Fritsche E, Heinonen T, Hougaard Bennekou S, Klima S, Piersma AH, Sachana M, Shafer TJ, Terron A, Monnet-Tschudi F, Viviani B, Waldmann T,  Westerink RHS, Wilks MF, Witters H, Zurich MG, Leist M. Recommendation on test readiness criteria for new approach methods in toxicology: Exemplified for developmental neurotoxicity. ALTEX (2018)

doi: 10.14573/altex.1712081

Bal-Price A, Fritsche E. Editorial: Developmental neurotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (2018)

doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2018.07.016



Aschner M, Ceccatelli S, Daneshian M, Fritsche E, Hasiwa N, Hartung T, Hogberg HT, Leist M, Li A, Mundi WR, Padilla S, Piersma AH, Bal-Price A, Seiler A, Westerink RH, Zimmer B, Lein PJ. Reference compounds for alternative test methods to indicate developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential of chemicals: example lists and criteria for their selection and use. ALTEX (2017)

doi: 10.14573/altex.1604201


Fritsche E, Crofton KM, Hernandez AF, Hougaard Bennekou S, Leist M, Bal-Price A, Reaves E, Wilks MF, Terron A, Solecki R, Sachana M, Gourmelon A. OECD/EFSA workshop on developmental neurotoxicity (DNT): The use of non-animal test methods for regulatory purposes. ALTEX (2017)

doi: 10.14573/altex.1701171




Benfenati E, Berggren E, Fritsche E, Hartung T, Slikker W, Spielmann H, Testai E, Tice RR, Tiramani M, Villenave R. Novel chemical hazard characterisation approaches. EFSA Journal (2016)




Fritsche E, Alm H, Baumann J, Geerts L, Hakansson H, Masjosthusmann S, Witters H. Literature review on in vitro and alternative Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) testing methods. EFSA Journal (2015)


Bal-Price A, Crofton KM, Leist M, Allen S, Arand M, Buetler T, Delrue N, FitzGerald RE, Hartung T, Heinonen T, Hogberg H, Bennekou SH, Lichtensteiger W, Oggier D, Paparella M, Axelstad M, Piersma A, Rached E, Schilter B, Schmuck G, Stoppini L, Tongiorgi E, Tiramani M, Monnet-Tschudi F, Wilks MF, Ylikomi T, Fritsche E. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes. Arch Toxicol (2015)

doi: 10.1007/s00204-015-1464-2

de Boer J, Fritsche E, Schoeters G, Kimber I. The European Long-range Research Initiative (LRI): A decade of contributions to human health protection, exposure modelling and environmental integrity. Toxicology (2015)

doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2015.09.003



Crofton K, Fritsche E, Ylikomi T, Bal-Price A. International Stakeholder NETwork (ISTNET) for creating a developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) roadmap for regulatory purposes. ALTEX (2014)

doi: 10.14573/altex.1402121


Bal-Price AK, Coecke S, Costa L, Crofton KM, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Grandjean P, Lein PJ, Li A, Lucchini R, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Persico AM, Seiler AE, Kreysa J. Advancing the science of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT): testing for better safety evaluation. ALTEX (2012)

doi: 10.14573/altex.2012.2.202

Scientific Opinions/Reports

Adverse Outcome Pathways

Klose J, Tigges J, Masjosthusmann S, Schmuck K, Bendt F, Hübenthal U, Petzsch P, Köhrer K, Koch K, Fritsche E.  TBBPA targets converging key events of human oligodendrocyte development resulting in two novel AOPs. Altex (2020)                    
doi: 10.14573/altex.2007201  

Barenys M, Reverte I, Masjosthusmann S, Gómez-Catalán J, Fritsche E. Developmental neurotoxicity of MDMA. A systematic literature review summarized in a putative adverse outcome pathway. Neurotoxicology (2020)
doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2019.12.007


Terron A, Bal-Price A, Paini A, Monnet-Tschudi F, Bennekou SH; EFSA WG EPI1 Members, Leist M, Schildknecht S. An adverse outcome pathway for parkinsonian motor deficits associated with mitochondrial complex I inhibition. Arch Toxicol (2018)

doi: 10.1007/s00204-017-2133-4


Ockleford C, Adriaanse P, Berny P, Brock T, Duquesne S, Grilli S, Hernandez-Jerez AF, Hougaard Bennekou S, Klein M, Kuhl T, Laskowski R, Machera K, Pelkonen O, Pieper S, Smith R, Stemmer M, Sundh I, Teodorovic I, Tiktak A, Topping CJ, Wolterink G, Angeli K, Fritsche E, Hernandez-Jerez AF, Leist M, Montovani A, Mendendez P, Pelkonen O, Price A, Viviani B, Chiusolo A, Ruffo F, Terron A, Hougaard Bennekou S. Investigation into experimental toxicological properties of plant protection products having a potential link to Parkinson's disease and childhood leukaemia. EFSA Journal (2017)


Pelkonen O, Terron A, Hernandez AF, Menendez P, Bennekou SH; EFSA WG EPI1 and its other members. Chemical exposure and infant leukaemia: development of an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for aetiology and risk assessment research. Arch Toxicol (2017)

doi: 10.1007/s00204-017-1986-x

Bal-Price A, Lein PJ, Keil KP, Sethi S, Shafer T, Barenys M, Fritsche E, Sachana M, Meek MEB. Developing and applying the adverse outcome pathway concept for understanding and predicting neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology (2017)

doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2016.05.010


Bal-Price A, Crofton KM, Sachana M, Shafer TJ, Behl M, Forsby A, Hargreaves A, Landesmann B, Lein PJ, Louisse J, Monnet-Tschudi F, Paini A, Rolaki A, Schrattenholz A, Sunol C, van Thriel C, Whelan M, Fritsche E. Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity. Crit Rev Toxicol (2015)

doi: 10.3109/10408444.2014.981331


Reviews/Book Chapters




Fritsche E, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Kapr J, Galanjuk S, Hartmann J, Mertens PR, Kämpfer AAM, Schins RPF, Tigges J, Koch K. Stem Cells for Next Level Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century. Small (2020) 
doi: 10.1002/smll.202006252

Barenys M, Reverte I, Masjosthusmann S, Gómez-Catalán J, Fritsche E. Developmental neurotoxicity of MDMA. A systematic literature review summarized in a putative adverse outcome pathway. Neurotoxicology (2020)

doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2019.12.007

Fritsche E, Tigges J, Hartmann J, Kapr J, Serafini MM, Viviani B. Neural In Vitro Models for Studying Substances Acting on the Central Nervous System. Brain Struct Funct (Handb Exp Pharmacol) (2020)

doi: 10.1007/164_2020_367


Barenys M, Fritsche E. A Historical Perspective on the Use of Stem/Progenitor Cell-Based In Vitro Methods for Neurodevelopmental Toxicity Testing. Toxicol Sci (2018)

doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy170

Fritsche E, Barenys M, Klose J, Masjosthusmann S, Nimtz L, Schmuck M, Wuttke S, Tigges J. Current Availability of Stem Cell-Based In Vitro Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing. Toxicol Sci (2018)

doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy178

Fritsche E, Barenys M, Klose J, Masjosthusmann S, Nimtz L, Schmuck M, Wuttke S, Tigges J. Development of the Concept for Stem Cell-Based Developmental Neurotoxicity Evaluation. Toxicol Sci (2018)

doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy175

Baker N, Boobis A, Burgoon L, Carney E, Currie R, Fritsche E, Knudsen T, Laffont M, Piersma AH, Poole A, Schneider S, Daston G. Building a developmental toxicity ontology. Birth Defects Res (2018)

doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1189


Barenys M, Masjosthusmann S, Fritsche E. Is Intake of Flavonoid-Based Food Supplements During Pregnancy Safe for the Developing Child? A Literature Review. Curr Drug Targets (2017)

doi: 10.2174/1389450116666150804110049


Alépée N, Bahinski A, Daneshian M, De Wever B, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Hansmann J, Hartung T, Haycock J, Hogberg H, Hoelting L, Kelm JM, Kadereit S, McVey E, Landsiedel R, Leist M, Lübberstedt M, Noor F, Pellevoisin C, Petersohn D, Pfannenbecker U, Reisinger K, Ramirez T, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Schäfer-Korting M, Zeilinger K, Zurich MG. State-of-the-art of 3D cultures (organs-on-a-chip) in safety testing and pathophysiology. ALTEX (2014)

doi: 10.14573/altex.1406111

Tigges J, Krutmann J, Fritsche E, Haendeler J, Schaal H, Fischer JW, Kalfalah F, Reinke H, Reifenberger G, Stühler K, Ventura N, Gundermann S, Boukamp P, Boege F. The hallmarks of fibroblast ageing. Mech Ageing Dev (2014)

doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2014.03.004


Fritsche E, Gassmann K, Schreiber T. Neurospheres as a model for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Methods Mol Biol (2011)

doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-170-3_7

Verner MA, Bouchard M, Fritsche E, Charbonneau M, Haddad S. In vitro neurotoxicity data in human risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): overview and perspectives. Toxicol In Vitro (2011)

doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2011.06.007


Breier JM, Gassmann K, Kayser R, Stegeman H, De Groot D, Fritsche E, Shafer TJ. Neural progenitor cells as models for high-throughput screens of developmental neurotoxicity: state of the science. Neurotoxicol Teratol (2010)

doi: 10.1016/

Reviews/Book Chapters
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